Unix Notes

To see what's recently changed on this page - please look at the Changes page.

I've put together these notes over the years in order to help me with Unix systems support. And yes, a small bit of searching will get the same information. Probably more information in a better format, now that I think of it.

Anyway, I hope this helps.

Use at your own risk. If you see any problems with this stuff, please send an email explaining what I screwed up on: dburton3@tampabay.rr.com.

I have some links scattered throughout this page that will either take you to other Unix related sites or to other support pages I've put together (Server Build document, GSP Notes, Ignite Notes, /etc/inetd.conf and /var/adm/inetd.sec document). I've also duplicated them (and maybe added some) on my Links page.

Rosetta Stone for UNIX

Exceed Stuff

ReflectionX Stuff

Unix (HP) Stuff

Unix (Sun) Stuff


Links to other Unix sites

Rosetta Stone for UNIX

Exceed Stuff - like ReflectionX
ReflectionX Stuff - like Exceed

Unix (HP) Stuff

HP Support:     1-800-633-3600
HP Contracts:   1-800-386-1115
HP Codewords:   1-800-538-1733 - 6am to 4:30pm PST
HP Passwords:   1-800-326-0411 - 6am to 6pm MST
HP Customer Business Center: 1-800-386-1117
You can find additional HP links on my Links page.

How to build a server

CDE stuff

Change the login screen logo Change the login screen "Welcome" message Change the login greeting (Copyright Blue Screen) to your company disclaimer Change the screen saver (locked screen) logo Disable X-Client broadcast access Print Window Check CDE configuration Other CDE stuff

Software Configurations


You may want to take a peak at my Ignite document too.

Sendmail stuff FTP Configuration NTP stuff NIS stuff

Networkish stuff

Check LAN cards Host lookup issues IP to MAC address resolution (or who pings back on the subnet)

LVM/Disk Stuff

FSCK the beast.
fsck -F vxfs -o full -y /dev/vg00/lvol6
Make a bootable mirror disk (primary=c0t6d0, alternate=c0t5d0) Add a mirror Remove a mirror and/or the mirror drive To extend or reduce a logical volume
(you may need to be in single user mode for /var, /tmp, etc.)
Export/import a volume group

Let's say you need to reinstall the O/S on a server and retain the logical volume(s) and there volume group(s) that hold your data, or you want to move a set of disk that contain data and configured volume groups to a different server.

/etc/lvmtab file problems Volume Group problems Convert a "nolargefiles" file system to a "largefiles" file system Other OnlineJFS stuff Recreate device files Test the drives (read the drive and output to nothing)
dd if=/dev/rdsk/c?t?d? of=/dev/null bs=4096k
Wipe the drives PFS mount Export a PFS mounted CD Export a mounted CD

Software Depot and Swinstall stuff

General Stuff Create a new software depot for patches Remove a software depot Rebuild the software INDEX file

Kernel, Core and Swap stuff

Other Kernel stuff Check Kernel parameters SAM Kernel Settings
The old selections for DataBase server kernel changes are not
available in 11i. To have these again, download the following
files and place them in the /usr/sam/lib/kc/tuned directory.
Then start up SAM and select the one you need.

General OLTP/Database Client System      oltp_cli.tun
General OLTP/Database Monolithic System  oltp_sa.tun
General OLTP/Database Server System      oltp_ser.tun
Manually reconfigure the kernel Awesome Kernel Change
* Configurable IPC Message Parameters:
      mesg      Enable/disable IPC messages (Series 700 only)
         Minimum:    0 (Exclude System V IPC message parameters from
         Maximum:    1 (Include System V IPC message parameters in kernel)
         Default:    1
      msgmap    message free-space map size
         Minimum:    3
         Maximum:    Memory limited
         Default:    msgtql+2
      msgmax    maximum message size
         Minimum:    0
         Maximum:    65535 bytes
         Default:    8192 bytes
      msgmnb    maximum bytes in message queue
         Minimum:    0
         Maximum:    65535 bytes
         Default:    16384 bytes
      msgmni    maximum message queues on system
         Minimum:    1
         Maximum:    Memory limited
         Default:    50
      msgseg     number of segments in message queue
         Minimum:    1
         Maximum:    32767
         Default:    2048
      msgssz     message segment size
         Minimum:    1
         Maximum:    Memory limited
         Default:    8 bytes
      msgtql     maximum total messages on system
         Minimum:    1
         Maximum:    Memory limited
         Default:    40

* Configurable IPC Semaphore Parameters:
      sema      Enable/disable semaphores (Series 700 only)
         Minimum:    0 (exclude System V IPC semaphore code from kernel)
         Maximum:    1 (include System V IPC semaphore code in kernel)
         Default:    1
      semaem    Semaphore value-change limit
         Minimum:    0
         Maximum:    semvmx or 32767, whichever is smaller
         Default:    16384
      semmap    Size of free-semaphore resource map
         Minimum:    4
         Maximum:    Memory limited
         Default:    semmni+2
      semmni    Maximum semaphores system-wide
         Minimum:    2
         Maximum:    Memory limited
         Default:    64
      semmns    Maximum user-accessible semaphores system-wide
         Minimum:    2
         Maximum:    Memory limited
         Default:    128
      semmnu    Maximum undos per semaphore
         Minimum:    1
         Maximum:    nproc-4
         Default:    30
      semume    Maximum semaphore undos per process
         Minimum:    1
         Maximum:    semmns
         Default:    10
      semvmx    Maximum allowed semaphore value
         Minimum:    1
         Maximum:    65535
         Default:    32767

* Configurable IPC Shared Memory Parameters:
      shmem     Enable/disable shared memory (Series 700 only)
         Minimum:    0 (exclude System V IPC shared memory code from
         Maximum:    1 (include System V IPC shared memory code in kernel)
         Default:    1
      shmmax    Maximum shared memory segment size
         Minimum:    2 Kbytes
         Maximum:    1792 Mbytes
         Default:    0x04000000 (64 Mbytes)
      shmmni    Maximum segments on system
         Minimum:    3
         Maximum:    (memory limited)
         Default:    200 identifiers
      shmseg    Maximum segments per process
         Minimum:    1
         Maximum:    shmmni
         Default:    120
Check core dumps Swap

Find and Move stuff

Find stuff Move (copying) /usr

Backup stuff

General stuff OmniBack stuff Veritas stuff

Errors and such

EMS is barking but it's ok Corrupted tracing and logging header Enter key in an xterm window doesn't work correctly

Get statistics and information

STM Information CPU Information Drive Information SAR Information Kernel Information

ipcs -mqsabcopt

32 or 64 bit supported server

User stuff

How to boot to single user mode

Command line stuff

Set the stinkin date

Setting/Resetting some system parameters

set_parms hostname
set_parms timezone
set_parms date_time
set_parms root_passwd
set_parms ip_address
set_parms addl_netwrk

Give root a REAL ksh shell at bootup

Check /etc/passwd and /etc/group files

Rebuild /dev/null

mknod /dev/null c 3 0x000002
chown bin:bin /dev/null
chmod 666 /dev/null

Man Page Stuff

Run "catman" to build the "/usr/share/lib/whatis" file.

Then you can run the "man -k [some command] to see what
manual sections the command is in. For example, if you run
"man -k mkdir", it will show that "mkdir" is in
sections 1 and 2.

To see section 2 you would run "man 2 mkdir".

Filesystem filling up?

Copy a set of printers from one server to another

On server "A"
  1. Open "sam ->Printers and Plotters->LP Spooler-> Save/Restore Spooler Configuration"
  2. Go to "Actions"
  3. Click on 'Save Spooler Configuration'
  4. Exit out of SAM
  5. tar cvf /tmp/sam.tar /var/sam/lp
  6. Transfer the sam.tar file to system B:/tmp.
On server "B"
  1. tar xvf /tmp/sam.tar
  2. You may need to change the permissions and ownership of these files. To do that run:
    chmod -R 755 /var/sam/lp/* ; chown -R lp:bin /var/sam/lp/*
  3. Open "sam ->Printers and Plotters->LP Spooler-> Save/Restore Spooler Configuration"
  4. Go to "Actions"
  5. Click on 'Restore Spooler Configuration'
  6. Don't forget to restart the scheduler
  7. Exit out of SAM

Console settings for N and L servers

Hitachi/Controller time out

How many floppies in a ....

Well, I was talking to my brother some time back. Told him about some new SAN we got in. It had Terabytes of storage. "Ok" he said. "What's a Terabyte?" I started to tell him roughly how big it was. Tried to include his hard drive as a ref. His eyes glazed over. Drool started to come out. What a mess. I then told him a Terabyte is roughly a bunch of floppies laid end-to-end from St. Petersburg (Florida) to Orlando. It's actually a bit less but he got that. So I thought why not figure it out and put it down someplace so I can ref it again if I need it. So, here's what I figured out (I think it's pretty accurate), a floppy is 1.44 megabytes and is 3.5 inches long (or wide if you look at it that way):

How many floppies are in a Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte, Exabyte, Zettabyte and a Yottabyte
How many MB in a: 1,024 1,048,576 1,073,741,824 1,099,511,627,776 1,125,899,906,842,620 1,152,921,504,606,846,976
How many 1.44 MB floppies are in a: 711.11 728,177.78 745,654,044.44 763,549,741,511.11 781,874,935,307,375.00 800,639,933,754,754,844.00
How many feet of floppies are in a: 207.41 212,385.19 217,482,429.63 222,702,007,940.74 228,046,856,131,317.70 233,519,980,678,470,162.83
How many miles of floppies are in a: 0.04 40.22 41,189.85 42,178,410.59 43,190,692,449.11 44,227,269,067,892.07
  7/11 down the street St. Petersburg, FL to Plant City, FL About 5.19 times around the earth Distance from the Earth to Mars More than ten times the farthest distance of Pluto from the Sun Or (roughly) 7.53 Light Years, or 2.3 Parsecs, or a round trip to Alpha Centauri
Ha ha... Oh MAN, I can't help myself... If you had a 56k Modem - how long would it take to transfer this much data?
56,000 bytes a second (let's make believe you can get this speed) * 60 = 3.36 meg a minute * 60 = 201.6 meg an hour
  5.07 Hours 216.71 Days 608.00 Years 624,304.79 Years 639,288,114.29 Years 652,837,519,369.50 Years

Stuff - I'm not sure where to put....

Unix (Sun) Stuff

Support number: 1-800-USA-4SUN (800-872-4786)


Nothing yet........

Links to other interesting Unix sites

I moved all the links that had been here to my Links page.
I developed this site so please send comments to dburton3@tampabay.rr.com. Thanks!

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Ok.. so I put this waaay down at the bottom of this web page. I don't expect anyone to actually toss a buck or two my way as a thank you for all the work I've done on this site (Hmmm... feel guilty yet?), but it sure would be nice.

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